KAKEN - User Guide: Format for Search Condition

Search Units

In KAKEN system, a sequence of the same character type is recognised as a ‘word’. Some character types are searched on a word-by-word basis, and some are on a character-by-character basis.

The character types that are searched on a word-by-word basis are:

English alphabet and numerical symbols Cases and widths are ignored
Other symbols Widths are ignored with some exceptions

The character types that are searched on a character-by-character basis are:

Hiragana, Katakana, Kanji, Hangeul

Conjunctive Search

A string of words separated with a space are treated as a ‘conjunctive search’. Records in different word orders are recognised as a match.

Examples

Queries Records Match
Computer Science computer science  
  science computer  
  science of computer  
  computer-science  
  computer sciences × As it verifies a match at a word level (i.e. ‘science’ and ‘sciences’ do not match).

In order to specify a conjunctive search, insert ‘AND’ in capital letters between words.

Inserting ‘+’ in front of a word won’t be recognised as a conjunctive search.

Examples

Queries Records Match
+computer +computer  
  #computer × The symbols do not match (i.e. ‘+’ and ‘#’).
  computer × The symbol (i.e. ‘+’) is missing.

Phrase Search

By enclosing words in double quotation marks (“ ”), you can search for a phrase in the same word order.

Examples

Queries Records Match
"Computer Science" computer science  
  science computer × The word orders are different.
  science of computer × It includes a word (i.e. ‘of’) between the words.
  computer-science × It includes a symbol (i.e. ‘-‘) between the words.

If you wish to use double quotation marks within a phrase, enter double quotation marks twice (i.e. ““).

Examples

Queries Records Match
"a""b" a"b
  a""b ×
"""" "

Prefix Match

By adding an asterisk (*) at the end of a word, you can search for strings with the matching prefix but with different endings.

Examples

Queries Records Match
mak* mak  
  make  
  making  
  made ×  
  remake × The prefix is different from the query.

Suffix Match

By adding an asterisk (*) at the beginning of a word, you can search for strings with the matching suffix but with different beginnings.

Examples

Queries Records Match
*mak mak  
  remake  
  making × The suffix is different from the query.

Middle Match

Middle match search is not available.

Exact Match for Researcher Names

If you wish to find a string matching ‘山田一’ but excluding ‘山田一郎’, enclose the researcher’s name between slashes (/ /) in the researcher search field.

Examples

Queries Records Match
/山田一/ 山田一
  山田一郎 ×

Disjunctive Search

You can operate a ‘disjunctive search’ by inserting ‘OR’ in capital letters between words.

Examples

Queries Records Match
Computer OR Science computer science
  science
  computer

When ‘AND’ and ‘OR’ are used in juxtaposition, ‘OR’ will be prioritised (i.e. it is different from the general logical operation).

Examples

Queries Records Match
red AND blue OR green red green It recognises it as red AND (blue OR green).
  green ×  

Negation

If you wish to search for records that do not include a certain word, insert ‘NOT’ in capital letters followed by a space in front of the word.

Examples

Queries Records Match
gnu NOT unix gnu  
  gnu unix ×  
  linux × It does not include ‘gnu’.

Complex Operation Using Parentheses

By enclosing a string in parentheses (( )), you can set complex conditions such as changing the order of AND/OR.

Examples

Queries Records Match
(red AND blue) OR green green
(山 AND 川) OR (風 AND 谷) 川と山